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Posts Tagged ‘reed mat’

Yurt among the treesMany country people make their own yurts from wood and wool but if you don’t have the time or the amazing skills in woodwork and felt making needed to make one, you will have to order one from a professional yurt maker. We met one such in Barskoön – a village on the southern shores of Lake Issyk Kul.

Mekenbek Osmonaliev got interested in yurt making when he was an art student in Bishkek in the 1970s. While he was there he helped to make a yurt for the Kyrgyzstan pavilion in an important Soviet exhibition. He hasn’t looked back since and has been all over the world with his yurts (including London) – mostly teaching the museums who have bought them how to put them up. He looks the part too dressed in his Kyrgyz hat

A yurt takes about 2 or 3 months to make and his small workforce can make about 4 a year – a medium sized (5 metre diameter) yurt will set you back around £3,000 (plus more for the felt and the interior decoration)

Poplar wood is used for the framework as its strong and light and can be steamed and formed in to the right shape for the lattice-work walls (kerege) and for the 75 or so roof struts which go up to the tunduk or roof dome. In the daytime you can stare through this to the blue sky. At night if it’s warm enough to leave open, you can see the stars. The yurt tunduk holds such a special place in the Kyrgyz heart that it features as the centrepiece in their flag. I find it quite endearing that such a domestic symbol is used to show national identity.

Yurt images

Mekenbek says he has never known a properly erected yurt blow down no matter how bad the weather and the wooden structure should last a lifetime as long as you take care when putting it up and when transporting and storing it, although the felt may need replacing or at least patching every 8 years.

When we visited the yurt factory there was no order on, so the wood workshop was quiet but the felting ladies were busy making big sheets of felt. Twenty five sheets of felt are sewn together to make the large pieces which cover the yurt roof, walls, top cover and door – and all together they will weigh around 250 kilos! They start with double that – 500 kilos.

Anyway here’s how the felt sheets are made – white wool is used for yurts and dark brown for felt rugs.

2. A couple of women pick out the twigs, burrs and bits of this and that still sticking to the wool and pull the fibres apart.

1. The wool, fresh from the sheep, is tipped onto a bed frame with a metal grill base and a woman sits beating the hell out of it with a couple of metal sticks. The dirt drops through the grill onto the floor.

4. Two women are working next door on a large wooden slatted platform which has a reed mat on it (about 5’ x 15’) They lay four separate thin layers of the processed wool onto the matting and very carefully spread and patch each layer so that it’s even.

3. This wool is fed into an amazing Heath Robinson type machine which passes the wool through a series of rollers. These comb and card it to produce a nice soft fluffy roll of fine wool ready for felting.

6. The three of them roll the wool up tightly along with the reed matting. More buckets of hot water are brought and poured onto the wool through the matting as they go.

5. When they are happy with this nice bed of wool, one woman begins to ladle very hot water over the wool. They now call in a third woman to help.

7. The long bundle is tied up tightly and then it is rolled into the pummelling machine. This noisy machine takes just 20 minutes of squashing, turning and pummelling to turn the wool into felt.

The felt sheets are sewn together to make large pieces and then finished by sewing a thick cord round the edges. Thick woven straps will keep them in place on the wooden frame.

Various woven, felted and embroidered decorations will also be needed to make the outside and the inside of your yurt beautiful. These include embroidered dividing screens, woven bags in various sizes, and of course thick felt rugs for the floor. There are also painted wooden or metal chests and always piles of thin mattresses and quilts which can be used for sitting and sleeping on. In a yurt, the furniture is almost all made from textiles.

Without a pummelling machine, this part is usually done by human feet or by tying it to the back of a horse and dragging it over rocky mountain paths!

Another essential is the reed screen which is rolled between the trellis and the felt. This keeps cold winds out or lets air through when the weather is hot and the felt is raised.

This screen (called a chiy) is made from reeds. Each reed is individually decorated by wrapping it with unspun dyed wool. When the reeds are joined together, they make a sometimes quite complex design. I have only just discovered the existence of these amazing textile treasures and now I notice them everywhere!

A fully furnished yurt needs a lot of time and skill to complete.

Let me know if you want one – I know a very nice man who will make you one!

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